Are your ‘sunshine vitamin’ levels low? Discover why you need vitamin D, how to get more and what to do if you're concerned about your levels...
Why do we need Vitamin D?
|Vitamin D blood ranges||Classification|
|25 - 50nmol/L||Insufficient|
How much sun do we need?
It is difficult to give a one-size-fits-all recommendation for sunlight exposure during the summer months. This is because so many other factors affect the amount of vitamin D that's made in the skin, including your skin colour and age, the strength of the sun, the time of day and where you live. Guidelines regarding this are under review and more information is anticipated later in 2016. The recent SACN report suggests that everyone over the age of one needs to consume 10mcg of vitamin D daily in order to protect bone and muscle health. In addition, public health officials say that in the winter months people should consider getting this from vitamin D supplements, if their diet is unlikely to provide it. See the NHS website for current advice.
A word of caution though, too much sun exposure can be damaging due to the risk of developing skin cancer. Only spend a small amount of time in the sun without sunscreen either early in the morning or late in the afternoon and the rest of the time be sure to cover up and avoid any chance of sunburn.
|Skin type||Minutes of July sun required|
|Fair||10 - 12 mins|
|African/ Afro-Caribbean||120 mins|
What affects our Vitamin D levels?
Several different factors can affect our vitamin D levels such as skin pigmentation, age, season, clothing and use of high factor sunscreens. As elderly people have thinner skin they are unable to make as much of the vitamin as younger people. Also, the position of the UK means that 90% of it lies above the latitude that permits exposure to the sun rays necessary for vitamin D synthesis. The southern part of the country is marginally better positioned for vitamin D synthesis (the closer you are to the equator the better). All of these factors will have an effect on our levels.
Approximately 60–70% of the UK adult population have insufficient levels of vitamin D in winter and spring and 16% are considered deficient. At present, there are recommendations for daily intakes for just a few specific groups, including 7mcg for babies from seven months to three years, and 10mcg for pregnant and breastfeeding women and over-65s. Whilst UK recommendations have not been set for the general population, some groups are considered to be at higher risk for developing deficiencies. These include:
- Pregnant and breastfeeding women
- People who have darker skin, such as those of South Asian, African or Afro-Caribbean descent
- Men and women who are over 65 years of age
- Babies and children aged six months to five years
- Adults who stay out of the sun or cover up when outside
Vitamin D in our diet
Foods that naturally contain vitamin D include oily fish such as mackerel, sardines, tinned salmon, herring and kippers. Some foods are fortified with small amounts of vitamin D, including breakfast cereals, infant formula and margarine. There are smaller amounts found in eggs and some red meats, such as duck, goose, pheasant and venison however, the exact amount is unknown. Breast milk also contains vitamin D and mums should make sure they aren’t deficient as this will affect the levels in their milk.
|Food per portion||Vitamin D content|
|Kipper (grilled, 140g)||14µg|
|Herring (grilled, 140g)||22.5µg|
|Mackerel (grilled, 140g)||11.9µg|
|Tinned salmon (140g)||19µg|
|Sardines (grilled, 140g)||7µg|
|Branflakes (fortified, 30g)||1.4µg|
|Hen eggs (poached, 2)||2.9µg|
Recipes containing Vitamin D-rich foods:
Herrings rolled with mushrooms & pancetta
Grilled herrings with mustard & basil dressing
Spaghetti with sardines
Sardines with Sicilian fennel salad
Sardines with chickpeas, lemon & parsley
Spiced rice with kippers & poached eggs
Also containing vitamin D:
Emer Delaney BSc (Hons), RD has an honours degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetics from the University of Ulster. She has worked as a dietitian in some of London's top teaching hospitals and is currently based in Chelsea.
This article was last reviewed on 10 May 2016 by nutritional therapist Kerry Torrens.
A registered Nutritional Therapist, Kerry Torrens is a contributing author to a number of nutritional and cookery publications including BBC Good Food magazine. Kerry is a member of the The Royal Society of Medicine, Complementary and Natural Healthcare Council (CNHC), British Association for Applied Nutrition and Nutritional Therapy (BANT).
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