10 foods to boost your brainpower

Eating well is good for your mental as well as your physical health. The brain requires nutrients just like your heart, lungs or muscles do. But which foods are particularly important to keep our grey matter happy and healthy?

10 foods to boost your brainpower

Wholegrains1. Wholegrains

Like everything else in your body, the brain cannot work without energy. The ability to concentrate and focus comes from an adequate, steady supply of energy - in the form of glucose in our blood to the brain. Achieve this by choosing wholegrains with a low-GI, which release glucose slowly into the bloodstream, keeping you mentally alert throughout the day. Opt for 'brown' wholegrain cereals, granary bread, rice and pasta.


Mackerel2. Oily fish

Essential fatty acids (EFAs) cannot be made by the body which means they must be obtained through diet. The most effective omega-3 fats occur naturally in oily fish in the form of EPA and DHA. Good plant sources include linseed (flaxseed), soya beans, pumpkin seeds, walnuts and their oils. These fats are important for healthy brain function, the heart, joints and our general wellbeing. What makes oily fish so good is that they contain the active form of these fats, EPA and DHA, in a ready-made form, which enables the body to use it easily. The main sources of oily fish include salmon, trout, mackerel, herring, sardines, pilchards and kippers. Low DHA levels have been linked to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and memory loss whilst having sufficient levels of both EPA and DHA is thought to help us manage stress and helps make the good mood brain chemical, serotonin. Consider a supplement if you're vegetarian. Those following a vegan diet may wish to supplement daily with a plant-based omega-3 supplement, and as a vegan don't forget to add seeds like linseed and chia to your diet.

Blueberry3. Blueberries

Evidence accumulated at Tufts University in the United States suggests that the consumption of blueberries may be effective in improving or delaying short term memory loss. They're widely available, but you can also look out for dark red and purple fruits and veg which contain the same protective compounds called anthocyanins.

Tomatoes4. Tomatoes

There is good evidence to suggest that lycopene, a powerful antioxidant found in tomatoes, could help protect against the kind of free radical damage to cells which occurs in the development of dementia, particularly Alzheimer's. Favour cooked tomatoes and enjoy with a little olive oil to optimise absorption and efficacy.


5. Vitamins

Certain B vitamins - B6, B12 and folic acid - are known to reduce levels of a compound called homocysteine in the blood. Elevated levels of homocysteine are associated with increased risk of stroke, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. A study of a group of elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment found that after two years of intervention with high doses of B6, B12 and folic acid there was significantly less brain shrinkage compared to a subset given placebo treatment. Opt for B-rich foods like chicken, fish, eggs and leafy greens.


Blackcurrants6. Blackcurrants

Vitamin C has long been thought to have the power to increase mental agility and protect against age-related brain degeneration including dementia and Alzheimer's. One of the best sources of this vital vitamin are blackcurrants. Others include red peppers, citrus fruits and broccoli.

Pumpkin seeds7. Pumpkin seeds

Richer in zinc than many other seeds, pumpkin seeds supply this valuable mineral which is vital for enhancing memory and thinking skills. These little seeds are also full of stress-busting magnesium, B vitamins and tryptophan, the precursor to the good mood chemical serotonin.


Broccoli8. Broccoli

Broccoli is great source of vitamin K, which is known to enhance cognitive function and improve brainpower. Researchers have reported that because broccoli is high in compounds called glucosinolates, it can slow the breakdown of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, which we need for the central nervous system to perform properly and to keep our brains and our memories sharp. Low levels of acetylcholine are associated with Alzheimer's.

Sage9. Sage

Sage has long had a reputation for improving memory and concentration. Although most studies focus on sage as an essential oil, it could be worth adding fresh sage to your diet too. Add at the end of cooking to protect the beneficial oils.


Walnuts10. Nuts

A study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology suggests that a good intake of vitamin E might help to prevent cognitive decline, particularly in the elderly. Nuts are a great source of vitamin E along with leafy green vegetables, asparagus, olives, seeds, eggs, brown rice and wholegrains.


The importance of exercise

Don't forget that as well as a healthy diet, exercise helps to keep our brains sharp. Research suggests that regular exercise improves cognitive function, slows down the mental aging process and helps us process information more effectively.


Brainpower supplements

Although research linking diet and dementia is still in its infancy, there are a few important relationships between nutrients and brain health that are worth exploring. Having a nourishing, well rounded diet gives our brain the best chance of avoiding disease. If your diet is unbalanced for whatever reason, you may want to consider a multivitamin and mineral complex and an omega-3 fatty acid supplement to help make up a few of the essentials. If you are considering taking a supplement it is best to discuss this with your GP or qualified healthcare professional.

More in health and nutrition:

Women's health
Men's health
Fitness & nutrition
Special diets
Eating for ill health
Healthy eating
Healthy cooking
Ingredient focus

This article was last reviewed on 6 May 2016 by nutritional therapist Kerry Torrens.

A registered Nutritional Therapist, Kerry Torrens is a contributing author to a number of nutritional and cookery publications including BBC Good Food magazine. Kerry is a member of the The Royal Society of Medicine, Complementary and Natural Healthcare Council (CNHC), British Association for Applied Nutrition and Nutritional Therapy (BANT).

All health content on bbcgoodfood.com is provided for general information only, and should not be treated as a substitute for the medical advice of your own doctor or any other health care professional. If you have any concerns about your general health, you should contact  your local health care provider. See our website terms and conditions for more information.

Comments, questions and tips

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18th Jan, 2017
14th Nov, 2016
Thank you for sharing these tips! I will try to follow this advice, especially when I have to study.
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25th Apr, 2016
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28th May, 2015
I have Coeliac disease. What would be a good substitute for eating grains for brain health?
goodfoodteam's picture
14th Jul, 2015
Hi there,Non-gluten alternatives include amaranth, buckwheat, rice, millet, quinoa, sorghum and teff. Varying the alternative you use is often the best strategy.All the best,The Good Food team
14th Nov, 2014
I have to follow a gluten-free diet and find that it is very difficult finding wholegrain gluten-free food. Any suggestions or advice?
goodfoodteam's picture
12th Jan, 2015
Hi there, thanks for your e-mai. We put yor question to Coeliac UK who recommend you take a look at this page, which is complete with a list of glute-free wholegrains and tips: https://www.coeliac.org.uk/gluten-free-diet-and-lifestyle/keeping-healthy/fibre-and-wholegrains/Many thanks,The Good Food team 
5th Nov, 2014
Tomatoes - does that include tinned? And what about passata? And while we are at it, are frozen veg as good [or very nearly] as fresh? I'm particularly thinking of green veg like peas, broad beans, green beans. Fresh peas are a seasonal rarity, so are broad beans and green beans in supermarkets are often rather tired after their long trip from Kenya.
goodfoodteam's picture
12th Jan, 2015
Hi there, yes it does include tinned tomatoes - two tinned tomatoes equal one portion of your five-a-day too. Frozen fruit and vegetables are great options and definitely count.Many thanks,The Good Food team
4th Feb, 2014
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