Scientists have discovered that the trillions of bacteria in our gastrointestinal tract don’t just process food. These bacteria help our body to maintain its equilibrium and achieve well-being. But what does it mean to have good gut health? What does it feel like and what can we do to improve gut health?


Discover even more top tips for digestive health. Also, check out some of our delicious gut-friendly recipes from satisfying soups to salads, including a whole range of tasty plant-based options.

What is the gut microbiome?

The “gut microbiome” refers to the trillions of bacteria and other microorganisms in our digestive system. Each individual has a unique microbiome, with the diversity and abundance of gut flora within this influencing our general health. Often, a reduced diversity and profusion in gut flora can be seen in people with certain conditions such as IBS. Everything we eat and drink influences our delicate internal gut ecosystem. How we manage stress, exercise, medications we use and even our genetics can have an impact. Some key areas affected by our gut health include:

  • Immunity – the gut microbiome plays a role in regulating the immune system. Alterations in gut bacteria can lead to autoimmune disorders and raised levels of inflammation.
  • Brain health – the gut microbiome can affect brain function. Gut cells and the microbiome produce neurotransmitters like serotonin and GABA which influence mood.
  • Nutrient absorption – the gut microbiome is crucial for the digestion and utilisation of nutrients. Macronutrients and micronutrients, like key B vitamins, are important producers of energy, while they also play a role in regulating metabolism and mood.
Peas, broad beans and eggs in a tomato base

How to spot an unhealthy gut

  • Upset stomach – processing food and eliminating waste challenge an unhealthy gut. Symptoms include excessive flatulence, bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.
  • Unintentional weight changes – an unhealthy gut impairs regulation of blood sugar, absorption of nutrients and storage of fat, which may result in unintentional weight changes in some individuals.
  • Skin irritation – some studies suggest that inflammation of the gut may contribute to skin irritation and conditions such as eczema by causing ‘leaking’ of certain proteins.

6 ways to improve your gut health

Here are six ways to get those good bacteria thriving:

  1. Reduce stress levels – stress causes the digestive process to slow or be disrupted. This can lead to maldigestion of foods prompting undesirable bacteria overgrowth.
  2. Limit alcohol intake – alcohol changes the ratio between beneficial bacteria (such as lactobacillus and bifidobacterium) and pathogenic bacteria (such as bacillus spp).
  3. Stay physically active – exercise boosts the level of gut microbes producing a substance called butyrate. This has many health benefits, from producing satiety hormones that curb hunger, to promoting gut motility.
  4. Eat insoluble and soluble fibre to promote the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. Insoluble fibre provides bulk to stools. Gut bacteria ferment soluble fibres. Both promote a healthy gut.
  5. Reduce sugar intake – a diet high in processed sugar may increase inflammation, decreasing the amount of beneficial gut bacteria.
  6. Eat a rainbow of fruit and vegetables daily – colourful fruit and vegetables provide polyphenols which promote gut health by stimulating abundant probiotic gut microbiota.

It is important to speak to a dietician or nutritionist before making any significant changes to your diet. If you are experiencing little relief from your gut issues, then it is recommended that you speak to your doctor as a specialist diagnosis may be required to treat an underlying condition.

Want to know more about gut health?

Top 10 probiotic foods to support your gut health
Does gut health affect weight?
How does diet affect gut health?
How to avoid indigestion
What to eat for… Better digestion

How do you support your gut health? Comment below and let us know…

This page was reviewed on 28th March 2022.

Tracey Randell is a qualified nutritionist (MBANT) and Institute for Functional Medicine practitioner (Dip BCNH, IFMCP, CNHC). She lectures at the nutrition college where she trained on various subjects including IBS, coeliac disease, the gut-brain axis and food intolerances. She also offers post graduate training to other healthcare professionals.


All health content on is provided for general information only, and should not be treated as a substitute for the medical advice of your own doctor or any other health care professional. If you have any concerns about your general health, you should contact your local health care provider. See our website terms and conditions for more information.

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