CBD oil is increasingly popular, both as a food supplement and as an oil to apply topically to the skin. We asked dietitian Emer Delaney to explain what it is, why people use it and whether it's safe.
What is CBD oil?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid – a chemical compound that acts throughout the body, including on certain parts of the brain, and is becoming increasingly popular in the health world. It comes from the cannabis plant; however, unlike its counterpart, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is responsible for the 'high' from marijuana, CBD, derived from the hemp plant, is non-intoxicating and some believe it may have potential health and wellness benefits. Once extracted from the cannabis plant, it is diluted with a carrier such as olive or coconut oil – this improves its bio-availability.
Is CBD oil legal in the UK?
Contrary to popular belief, CBD oil is legal in the UK as it is not a controlled substance. There are, however, strict restrictions over its THC content. CBD oil that isn't medically prescribed can only have a maximum THC content of 0.2%. CBD oil products that have a higher THC content may be available to buy online, but not legally
A small number of patients in the UK may be prescribed a cannabis-based medicine to treat epilepsy or nausea during chemotherapy. Visit the NHS website for more information on medical cannabis.
It’s worth noting that there are no CBD products authorised for use in animals in the UK. If you are considering CBD oil for your pet, only a vet can prescribe a legal human CBD product.
What is CBD oil used for?
Supporters of CBD oil believe it may help a number of clinical conditions, including refractory epilepsy, chronic pain, depression, anxiety and acne. However, further robust evidence is required as much of the research is carried out on animal models.
A systematic review looking at the use of CBD for epilepsy concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support the efficacy and long-term safety of using it to treat epilepsy. It does, however, suggest that, albeit in very low numbers, small daily doses were safe in a small group of adults for a short period of time.
There are some suggestions from animal studies that CBD may be beneficial for osteoarthritis, through topical application for inflammation or joint pain, however, it has been difficult to attribute the therapeutic benefits to CBT alone.
One study reported reduced pain and muscle spasms in people with multiple sclerosis.
Early evidence looking into the use of CBD in the treatment of anxiety and depression has found some exciting results – although on very small samples. The first study assessed anxiety links with public speaking; it found a very specific dose of CBD (300mg) showed anti-anxiety effects. The second study was a stand-alone case report of one child with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It found CBD oil helped the child safely reduce her anxiety and improve sleep.
CBD may also have the potential to help reduce acne; however, it is important to note that this research is still in its infancy.
For all the above uses, more human studies are needed before conclusive results may be drawn.
Can I buy CBD oil safely?
Most large health food stores will stock 'pure' CBD oil. However, as it is classed as a 'food supplement' rather than a 'medicinal product', it isn't regulated in the UK. This means you cannot know for sure that the product you buy contains the 'active' ingredients at the amounts listed on the label. Furthermore, the product may contain contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other elements. For this reason, the NHS highlights there is no guarantee that these products will be of good quality or provide the intended health benefits.
Is CBD oil safe for everyone?
If you're considering using CBD oil, you should speak to your GP or other healthcare professional to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for you to do so.
This is particularly important if you are experiencing any concerning symptoms, if you have any pre-existing conditions or if you are taking any medication including statins, blood-thinning medication and calcium channel blockers.
Although the use of CBD is controversial, it does seem to be tolerated by most people. It has, however, caused hypotension and light-headedness in a small number of patients. As it does not contain the THC part of the cannabis plant, the oil will not induce a ‘high’.
CBD oil should not be used by pregnant or breastfeeding women.
This article was reviewed on 21 March 2022 by Kerry Torrens.
Kerry Torrens BSc. (Hons) PgCert MBANT is a registered nutritionist with a post-graduate diploma in Personalised Nutrition & Nutritional Therapy. She is a member of the British Association for Nutrition and Lifestyle Medicine (BANT) and a member of the Guild of Food Writers. Over the last 15 years she has been a contributing author to a number of nutritional and cookery publications including BBC Good Food.
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