Dry January: What are the benefits and drawbacks?
Is giving up alcohol for a month good for long-term health? Can Dry January be harmful? And is there anyone who shouldn’t participate? We asked the experts
Every year millions of us participate in charity campaigns or make a personal resolution to lay off the booze for a month at the start of the year – an estimated 6.5 million took part in January 2021.
But do we really know how these short periods of abstinence affect our long-term health? We asked leading experts to explain the potential benefits and drawbacks, and to give their overall opinion on Dry January.
What is Dry January?
What do the experts say?
1. Giving up alcohol for a month may aid weight loss and lower blood pressure
Dr Gautam Mehta, Senior Lecturer at the UCL Institute for Liver and Digestive Health
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Dr Mehta co-authored a paper on the benefits of periods of abstinence such as Dry January. He says:
“Our work has shown that a month off alcohol, in healthy individuals drinking at moderate to high levels, does lead to tangible health benefits by the end of the month. Our study saw a weight loss of around 2kg, a decrease in blood pressure of around 5%, and improvement in diabetes risk of almost 30%. We also noted large decreases in blood growth factors that are linked to certain cancers. However, we don’t know how long these benefits last, or whether they translate to long-term improvements in health.”
But does it lead to longer term changes in drinking behaviours? Dr Mehta’s research suggests that it could. “At six to eight months after Dry January, the proportion of participants drinking at harmful levels decreased by about 50%. It may be that participating in Dry January allows individuals to ‘reset’ their relationship with alcohol.”
2. Dry January may have short-term health benefits, but longer term drinking patterns are important, too
Marcus Munafò, Professor of Biological Psychology at the University of Bristol
Professor Munafò agrees that periods of abstinence could be helpful, but highlights that cutting back over the whole year is also important.
“It’s worth bearing in mind that to have a real benefit on health, people should be drinking within recommended low risk guidelines across the whole year. Dry January might be a helpful way to re-establish control over your drinking, and could have some short-term benefits (a lot of people report sleeping better, for example), but it’s unlikely to have major long-term health benefits in itself.
“We also don’t really know whether short-term abstinence affects longer term drinking patterns, but it’s possible. If people can use Dry January as a way of feeling more confident about managing their drinking generally, then that could translate to lower consumption overall across the whole year. However, it could also have unintended consequences – people might feel that they’ve ‘detoxed’ after a month of no drinking, and drink more than they otherwise would have done in subsequent months.”
3. Dry January may promote self-awareness around drinking behaviours
Ian Hamilton, Lecturer in Addiction at the University of York
Ian Hamilton says that Dry January may help drinkers to analyse their own habits and see where they could change them, but points out that it’s a difficult area to research.
“Overall, Dry January is a good initiative as it prompts people to think about not just how much they drink but what their individual relationship with alcohol is. For example, if you often drink to relax, it might get people to think about alternative ways to relax rather than relying on alcohol.
“The problem with Dry January is that it hasn’t been independently evaluated. It might be that those people who participate and successfully go without alcohol for a month are those that are already drinking in moderation. Even if people do feel they benefit from Dry January it’s difficult to know whether this is solely due to cutting out alcohol, as people tend to do parallel healthy things like eat more healthily and take up exercise.”
4. More research is needed before we can say this is the best approach
Professor Matt Field, Department of Psychology at the University of Sheffield
Professor Field points out that while the existing research into the longer-term effects on drinking patterns following Dry January seem promising, more robust studies are needed in order to determine whether it’s the best approach for people trying to cut down their alcohol intake. “The only way to find that out is to take a group of heavy drinkers who want to cut down, and randomise them to either abstain for a month, or try to cut down using a different approach, for example only drinking alcohol at weekends, or limiting consumption to a few drinks on each occasion.”
Is there anyone who shouldn’t participate in Dry January?
All the experts agree that people who are physically or psychologically dependent on alcohol should seek advice from a health professional before they commit to Dry January. This is because suddenly stopping drinking may cause withdrawal effects, which can be severe. If you’re concerned about your drinking, speak to your GP.
Do you participate in Dry January? Let us know how you feel in the comments below.
This guide was updated in November 2022.
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