The health benefits of... salmon

  • By
    Jo Lewin - Nutritional therapist

Nutritionally dense and something of a superfood, nutritionist Jo Lewin explains why oily fish can be an important part of a healthy diet...

The health benefits of... salmon

Fish and shellfish have been important in human nutrition since prehistoric times. Fish farming is an age old practice and the ancient Assyrians and Romans farmed fish in ponds. For thousands of years the Chinese have farmed fish using their rice fields during the periods when the fields are under water. Throughout history, fish and shellfish have been a source of economic power. During recent decades, per capita fish consumption has expanded all over the world.

In addition to eating fresh fish, techniques such as smoking and salting have been used to preserve salmon. To this day, smoked salmon is enjoyed as traditional fare in the cuisines of the Russian Federation, Britain and Scandinavia.
 

One-pan salmon Brain food

One of the main reasons fish consumption is increasing in the UK is the desire to eat more healthily. Of all the different types of fish, salmon has received the most praise for being a nutritional marvel. Salmon are described as anadromous; born in fresh water before spending a large portion of their lives navigating the open sea only to swim back to their birthplace in order to spawn. This extraordinary homing mechanism is said to be attributed to their olfactory memory (memory of smell). A reason why these intelligent, intuitive fish are considered a 'brain food'.
 

Varieties of salmon

As with all fish consumption, sustainability is a major issue. Several varieties of salmon are sustainable however and you can find more information at msc.org. Salmon varieties are usually classified by the ocean in which they are located. In the Pacific they are considered part of the genus Oncorhynchus, and in the Atlantic they belong to the genus Salmo. There is only one migratory Atlantic species but five existing species of Pacific salmon: chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum. In the UK, the main source of salmon is from Scotland. Wild Alaskan salmon is also available.

Salmon flesh is typically pink but their colour can range from red to orange. The chinook and sockeye varieties are fattier than pink and chum, favourites for steaks and fillets, while coho falls somewhere in the middle. Pink salmon is primarily used for canned food. Chinook salmon are the largest and sockeye the smallest salmon. Due to the various species parameters, cuts and fillet sizes are variable.
 

Salmon parcelNutritional information

Fish and shellfish are nutrient dense and salmon is no exception. It is an excellent source of high-quality protein, vitamins and minerals (including potassium, selenium and vitamin B12) but it is their content of omega-3 fatty acids that receives the most attention.
 

231 calories25g protein85mg of cholesterol3.2g saturated fat
A 100g serving of salmon contains
 


...A note on omega-3 fatty acids

The most beneficial omega-3 fats occur naturally in oily fish as eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA). They are contribute to healthy brain function, the heart, joints and general wellbeing. The idea that eating fish may reduce the risk of heart disease began in the 1970s when it was noted that among the Eskimos in Arctic Greenland (where high consumption of marine animals was the normal diet), heart disease was very low. In addition to heart disease, scientists now pose that fish consumption may lower the risk of many cancers as well as many chronic diseases including Alzheimer's disease , asthma, depression, diabetes, high blood pressure, macular degeneration, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Omega-3 is termed as an essential fatty acid because the body cannot synthesise it itself and must be obtained from the diet. To optimise your body's supply of essential fats rich in EPA and DHA, aim to eat oily fish - such as salmon, mackerel, sardines, herring and fresh tuna - at least three times a week.


 

70 mg EPA2140mg DHA
Omega-3 ratio per 100g
 

 

SalmonSelect and store

Salmon can be purchased as either steaks or fillets, fresh, frozen, canned or smoked. Fresh salmon should have smooth, moist skin. If it has been sold whole, its eyes should be bright and clear, not cloudy or sunken. Rely on your sense of smell to tell you if the fish is fresh. If you cannot eat the fresh salmon within a couple of days, it's best to freeze it. Once frozen and thawed, it should not be refrozen.


Safety

Fish farms now contribute a large amount of salmon being consumed. The wild (free range) fish are superior in many ways to their farm raised counterparts. Wild salmon have also been found to have fewer pesticide residues than farmed, however studies fail to make a strong case that eating farm raised fish poses a significant safety concern. Smoked salmon is seen as a safe food to eat during pregnancy.

Follow the same food safety rules for salmon as you would with raw meat or poultry. Make sure it is cooked thoroughly by measuring it at its thickest point and cook for 10 minutes per inch. Properly cooked salmon will have firm but moist flesh that will flake apart.

Salmon with spring veg
Recipe suggestions

Salmon lends itself to baking, barbecuing, poaching, steaming or grilling.

Simple salmon suppers with lots of veg:
Salmon & spinach with tartare cream
Spring salmon with minty veg
Sticky salmon with Chinese greens

If a salmon fillet sounds too fishy why not add other flavours in a fishcake:
Superhealthy salmon burgers
Salmon & ginger fishcakes

Or turn it into a family friendly pasta dish:
Italian broccoli & salmon bake
Hot smoked salmon with creamy pasta & pine nuts

Smoked or fresh, salmon is great in salads:
Salmon with chickpea, pepper & spinach salad
Marinated smoked salmon with poppy seeds

Or the classic fish pie:
Summer fish pie

Jo Lewin holds a degree in nutritional therapy and works as a community health nutritionist and private consultant. She is an accredited member of BANT and is covered by the association's code of ethics and practice.

All health content on bbcgoodfood.com is provided for general information only, and should not be treated as a substitute for the medical advice of your own doctor or any other health care professional. If you have any concerns about your general health, you should contact  your local health care provider. See our website terms and conditions for more information.

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missco's picture

i firstly want to say thanks for the receipt at the end of this awesome read, I am eating salmon 3 times a week so always looking for ways to make it exciting, and now I have another…. I also read below about how some articles say salmon is bad, but all nutritionist that I have seen have agreed it is so good. I am forever researching what I put in my body, this article was also a good read, might be of some help for u guys too: http://www.berkleys.com.au/2014/08/07/benefits-of-eating-salmon/

Kyberia's picture

I hate to nitpick, but the reason salmon is regarded as a "brain food" is nothing to do with how great the salmon's homing mechanism is. Eating smart things does not make you smart.

It's because of the protein - when you have some nice protein for slow, steady energy release, you don't enter the scatterbrained low-blood sugar state - and the apparent anti-depressant effect of the omega-3 EPA fatty acid - we don't know quite how the oil is involved yet, but there is a decent amount of evidence that it alleviates depression symptoms, one of which is so-called "goldfish memory". So you take in and retain information better and can focus on what you're doing for longer, and thus seem smarter!

Daveo77's picture

We love salmon.

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lucyrebecca100's picture

A great article on the benefits of salmon! I've also been reading that salmon (and other seafood) which comes from Alaska is as healthy as it gets, coming from clear waters and super rich in nutrients. There are some great salmon recipes out there discovered a win a holiday competition (cruise for two) to Alaska http://www.jamieoliver.com/magazine/competitions

AdamBredwin's picture

Great Article. Norwegian salmon contains important marine proteins and omega-3 fatty acids that are so important for the human body and it is considered as cleaner and healthier than any other salmon. For more details, you can checkout website: http://www.biomega.no.

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