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First, make the harissa ketchup. Heat the oil in a large, heavy-based saucepan over a medium heat and fry the onions and celery with a pinch of salt for 10 mins until softened. Add the garlic, coriander seeds, fennel seeds and ras el hanout, and fry for 2 mins more. Stir in the harissa, tomatoes and 300ml water. Bring to a simmer and cook, uncovered, for around 15-20 mins, stirring often until the mixture is reduced and thickened. Remove from the heat, tip into a food processor and blitz until smooth. Or, use a hand blender. Sieve through a fine mesh sieve into a clean saucepan to remove any seeds, then add the sugar and vinegar and simmer uncovered for 10-15 mins, stirring often until saucy and shiny. Season well. Pour into a 500ml sterilised bottle or jar and leave to cool completely. Will keep in the fridge for up to two weeks.
Curl the sausages into a spiral shape and secure with a wooden skewer, if you like (or leave as they are). Fry in batches over a medium- high heat in half the vegetable oil for 5 mins on each side until golden brown and cooked through. Remove to a plate. Fry the eggs in the rest of the oil until golden and crisp at the edges. Split the baps and spread the bases with some of the harissa ketchup, then top each with two sausages, a fried egg, some parsley and chilli flakes, if using. Sandwich with the tops of the baps and serve.