Do you have a food intolerance?

  • By
    Jo Lewin - Nutritional therapist

Information regarding food allergy and intolerance is plentiful, but so are the myths. Self-diagnosed, food sensitivities have become more common place, but how can you really tell if you suffer from a food intolerance?

Do you have a food intolerance?

Food allergy and food intolerance

Food intolerances are different to food allergies. An allergy elicits an acute, almost immediate reaction; the worst of which is anaphylaxis. Food intolerance is less severe and notoriously difficult to test. Intolerance is usually because the body is lacking an enzyme that is needed to properly digest and eliminate a food or substance. Symptoms are delayed and may include bloating, headaches or skin rashes. Skin prick testing and laboratory blood tests are available but the most effective, accepted and accurate way of identifying problem foods is via an elimination diet.  

 

Elimination dietallergy

An elimination diet is a free, non-invasive way of working out if you have a food sensitivity. You don’t need any pills or potions, just a fair amount of will power. Compliance and commitment are key to getting results.

Before you embark on an elimination diet, arm yourself with all the information you might need. Consult a qualified health professional to ensure your nutritional requirements are met.  Start by removing suspected foods and food groups – gluten, dairy, eggs, caffeine and alcohol (to name a few) for at least one week and up to one month. At this initial stage it is recommended that you create a comprehensive list of ‘foods to exclude’ and ‘foods to include’ and keep a food diary of how you feel, symptoms etc.

After the period of elimination, reintroduce one food at a time from the exclusion list in normal amounts. Test the food on its own on an empty stomach. If symptoms return within 48 hours, then you probably have your answer. Leave at least two days between testing different foods.  If there is no reaction after four days, bring the food carefully back into your diet. If you do experience a reaction, wait until you feel well again before continuing the reintroduction and avoid the culprit food for three months before re testing.

If you suspect you have an allergy or intolerance or if you are breastfeeding, pregnant or taking any medication, you should consult with your doctor before making any dietary adjustments.  

 

Common intolerances


StrawberriesFructose
Fructose is a natural sugar found in fruits, honey and some syrups. If you suspect you have a sensitivity to fructose, you should also try to avoid sucrose (table sugar), high fructose corn syrup, fruit and fruit juices, sorbitol and sweetened juices. Common signs of fructose intolerance include abdominal pain, gas and bloating and diarrhoea. The FODMAP diet is a new approach to managing IBS which is specifically linked to fructose sensitivity. 


Wheat
Wheat is one of the most commonly allergenic foods due to its gluten content. Wheat intolerance is less severe than a gluten allergy. When trying to decipher wheat intolerance, it is important to eliminate white flour and flour based products entirely. Wheat intolerance varies between individuals with some people able to tolerate alternative grains. If you suspect you have a wheat intolerance, try eliminating wheat entirely and trying small amounts of older varieties of grains such as spelt or kamut which are higher in fibre, lower in gluten and far more nutritious. 

 

GlutenGluten
Gluten is the glue-like protein found in many grains but especially in wheat, rye and barley. Its elasticity makes it a key part of many bakes. Some people are intolerant to the gluten in all of these grains, others just find wheat the trigger. A diet high in refined carbohydrates can contain significant quantities of gluten, which can effectively ‘glue up’ the digestive system. If you have discovered you cannot tolerate any gluten containing grains, try rice, corn and potato flours.
 

Glucose
If you have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG), your body is not using glucose (sugar) properly. This may result in higher than normal blood sugar levels – a condition known as hyperglycemia. Diagnosis of either IGT or IFG requires medical guidance and is through blood test. Symptoms include excessive thirst, dry mouth, fatigue, blurred vision and frequent urination. It is important to seek medical advice if you suspect you have an intolerance to glucose.  

 

Dairy-freeLactose
All animal milks contain a sugar called lactose. We make an enzyme in our gut called lactase to digest the lactose in milk. Without lactase, the sugar is left to ferment in the gut and causes symptoms such as bloating, wind and diarrhoea. Many adults do not produce enough lactase, so suffer from what is known as lactose intolerance (essentially a lactase deficiency). If you are intolerant to lactose you may be able to tolerate a little butter, cheese or yogurt before symptoms arise. Others choose to avoid dairy products completely.

 

Alcohol
Alcohol intolerance may be caused by alcohol or the food the alcohol is made from (e.g. grapes from wine, grains from whisky). Alcohol can affect the integrity of the gut which may explain why some people experience digestive discomfort to food when it is coupled with drinking alcohol. Red wine is a common trigger, followed by whisky and beer. Alcohol intolerance can cause unpleasant symptoms such as nasal congestion and skin flushing. Once again, intolerance is linked to an enzyme deficiency making it hard for the body to break down alcohol. Intolerance may also be due to other ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages (especially beer and wine) including sulphites, preservatives or chemicals.

 

HistamineTofu
Histamine occurs naturally in certain foods. We produce an enzyme called diamine oxidase to help break down the histamine in certain foods. Like with many intolerances, some people do not produce enough of this enzyme and consequently when they eat histamine containing foods they suffer symptoms such as headaches, skin rashes, itching, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Foods that are particularly high in histamine include: wine, beer, cider, pickled foods, cheese, tofu, soya sauce, processed meats, smoked fish and chocolate.  More information on histamine intolerance can be found at allergyuk.org

 

Yeast
Yeast is present in a variety of foods, commonly bread, baked products and alcoholic beverages. Yeast intolerance has a wide range of symptoms including flatulence, bad breath, fatigue, irritability, cravings for sugary foods, stomach cramps, bad skin and indigestion. If you suspect you are intolerant to yeast try following a yeast free diet (through elimination) for a few weeks. If there is a significant improvement then you have found your culprit!


For more information on food intolerances visit allergyuk.org.

 

Jo Lewin holds a degree in nutritional therapy and works as a community health nutritionist and private consultant. She is an accredited member of BANT, covered by the association's code of ethics and practice.

All health content on bbcgoodfood.com is provided for general information only, and should not be treated as a substitute for the medical advice of your own doctor or any other health care professional. If you have any concerns about your general health, you should contact  your local health care provider. See our website terms and conditions for more information.

Comments, questions and tips

Sign in or create your My Good Food account to join the discussion.

Comments

Show comments
Life Of Diva's picture

The food we eat plays an important role in keeping our skin healthy. Fresh fruits and vegetables are always good for our health and give us a glowing skin too. Studies conducted on people shows that those people who consumed proper amount of vitamins and minerals in their diet have healthier skin and hair than those who did not. Protein rich foods, vitamins and carbohydrates help to nourish the cells in our body and promote growth and development. When our body lacks proper nourishment, it reflects on our skin as it gets dry and dehydrated. Here are some fabulous foods for dry skin you need to check out below:

http://www.lifeofdiva.com/skin-care/foods-dry-skin/

Jobee6729's picture

All i can suggest on this is that everyone should eat food regularly they should skip to eat like eat crashing so that they would have a sexy body. Food is very important to our body so we should take it in right time. For more information kamagra jelly

sycamore55's picture

Why wasn't salicylate sensitivity mentioned? It is very difficult to eliminate this from the diet as it means few fruits, vegetables, no preservatives or artificial additives. No organic produce, no herbs, no spices, no tea or coffee, or flavored drinks and only a couple of alcoholic drinks and milk and water. Labels must be read carefully when you have this intolerance. Also food intolerances can lead to anaphylaxis as I well know. It does not develop suddenly instead builds up over several hours or days, but is very serious when the throat is swelling.

fheadridge's picture

Hi although you make the disclaimer about consulting GP before making any dietary changes I think it is important that you highlight the need to have conditions such as Coeliac Disease excluded BEFORE anything is taken out of the diet. So often people remove gluten, feel better, then they are denied a proper diagnosis and thus treatment package. Gluten needs to be in the diet so that serology testing and biopsy doesn't give a false negative result. People will follow your advice without seeking medical help.

ajctracey's picture

Absolutely right! I've made a similar comment elsewhere on this site - it is really important to exclude coeliac disease before starting an elimination diet.

Questions

Tips